2.1. Preposition “By”

There are 8 posible ways to use the proposition “by”:

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Beside, at the side of, next to, close to.
Examples:

  • The house is by a river.
  • David lives by a train station.
  • I would love to live in a house by the sea.

How you travel somewhere.
Examples:

  • David went to Manchester by train.
  • I go to work by car.
  • My parents often go to France by boat.

How you communicate with someone.
Examples:

  • I spoke to her by telephone.
  • I will send you the invoice by post.
  • Please confirm the order by email.

How you pay for something.
Examples:

  • We paid for the computer by cheque.
  • Can I pay by credit card?

In the passive voice, indicates WHO is doing the action.
Examples:

  • The kitchen is being cleaned by David.
  • The book was written by Sarah}
  • The concert was organised by our school.

Means to do something alone.
Examples:

  • I enjoy reading by myself.
  • Sarah is studying by herself.
  • Let’s do something by ourselves.

How to do something.
Examples:

  • You can turn on the radio by pressing that button.

Not later than; before or at a particular time.
Examples:

  • Guests must vacate their hotel rooms by 11 am.
  • Please send us the payment by tomorrow.
  • Students must enrol by the end of June.
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